1   Paulus, a slave of Yeshua the Anointed, a called ambassador, who has been set apart for the good news of God — which he promised before through his prophets in the holy writings about his son, who according to the flesh was a seed of David, but according to the spirit of holiness was designated with power to be the son of God — by the resurrection from the dead of Yeshua the Anointed, our lord. Through whom, for the sake of his name, we received grace and ambassadorship resulting in the obedience of faith among all the nations, among whom you= also are the called of Yeshua the Anointed.

    To all those in Rome who are beloved of God, called, holy.

    Grace to you=, and peace, from God our father and from the lord Yeshua the Anointed.

    First indeed, I give thanks to my god through Yeshua the Anointed on behalf of all of you=, that your= faith is being proclaimed throughout the whole world. God, whom I serve in my spirit in the good news of his son, is my witness how I make remembrance of you= incessantly in my prayers at all times, pleading when, if by some means, I’ll be prospered in the will of God to come to you=. For I long to see you=, so that I may share with you= a spiritual endowmenta to establish you=. And that is, that I might be encouraged together with you=, because of one another’s faith, both yours= and mine.

    Now, I don’t want you= to be unaware brothers, that I often intended to come to you=, (but have been prevented until now), so that I might have some fruit among you= just as I’ve had among the rest of the nations. I’m a debtor to both Greeks and to Barbariansb, both to the wise and to the foolish. That’s the reason for my eagerness to bring the good news also to those of you= in Rome. For I’m not ashamed of the good news of the Anointed, for it’s the power of God for the salvation of everyone who trusts it. First to Jews, and also to Greeks. For the righteousness of God is revealed in it, from faith, to faith, as it’s been written, “The righteous one will live by faith.”

    For the wrath of God is being revealed from heaven on all the ungodliness and unrighteousness of mankind, restraining the truth in unrighteousness. Because the knowledge of God is evident among them, for God himself has manifested it to them. For his invisible attributes have been within view since the creation of the world, being deduced from the things that were made, both his everlasting power and his divinity, so that everyone is without defence. Because when they perceived God, they didn’t glorify him as God, nor did they give thanks, but their thinking was made pointless, and their void of understanding heart was darkened. Claiming to be wise they were made fools, and they exchanged the glory of the immortal God for a likeness of the image of a mortal person, and of birds, and of animals, and of reptiles.

    Therefore God handed them over in the desires of their hearts to uncleanness, for the dishonouring of their bodies among themselves. Those who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and revered and served the creation instead of the creator, who’s blessed into the ages.


    Because of this, God handed them over to disgraceful passions, and even the women exchanged the natural ways for ways contrary to nature. In the same way, the men also abandoned the natural ways with women, and burned in their craving for one another. Men behaving indecently with men, and being paid back among themselves with the consequences for their going astray.

    And since they didn’t discern God, to have knowledge, he gave them over to a depraved mind to do things which aren’t fitting — they’ve become filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, greed and evil. They’re full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They’re gossips, slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boasters, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, void of understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, implacable, unmerciful. Who, recognising the penalty of God that those who practise such things are deserving of death, not only do these same things, but they also endorse those who practise them.

a) the Greek word has the idea of an undeserved/unmerited gift or favour

b) Barbarians was a term used to describe people who were not Greeks or Romans

c) amen is a Hebrew word meaning “truly”

2   That’s why you’re- without defence, honourable person — every one who judges. Because when you- judge others you- condemn yourself, because you-, the one who judges, practise the same things. Now we know that the condemnation of God against those who practise such things is in accordance with the truth. But you-, honourable person, when you- judge those who practise such things but do the same things yourself, do you- think that you’ll- escape the condemnation of God? Or do you- despise the riches of his kindness, and tolerance, and patience — being ignorant that the kindness of God leads you- into repentance?

    But according to your- hardness, and your- unrepentant heart, you- hoard wrath for yourself on the day of the wrath, and revelation, and judgement of God, who’ll repay each one according to their works. Indeed to those who seek glory, honour and incorruption according to perseverance of good work — everlasting life. But to those who, because of self interest and being disobedient to the truth, are being persuaded by unrighteousness — fury and wrath. There’ll be duress and distress for every soul of a person who produces evil. First for the Jew and then for the Greek. But glory, and honour, and peace for everyone working good. First for the Jew, then for the Greek. Because there’s no partiality with God.

    For those who’ve sinned without law, will also perish without law. And those who’ve sinned in the law, will be judged by the law. Because it isn’t the hearers of the law who are righteous to God, but it’s the doers of the law who’ll be righteous. For whenever the nations, who don’t have the law, instinctively do the things of the law, they’re a law to themselves, even though they don’t have the law. They’re displaying the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also testifying, and their own reasoning alternates between accusing and defending them. On the day when God will judge the hidden things of mankind according to my good news through Yeshua the Anointed.

    Now, if you’re- called a Jew, and you’re- relying on the law, and you’re- boasting in God. And you- perceive his will, and you- discern what’s of consequence, since you’ve- been instructed from the law. And you- have confidence that you- yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those in darkness, a discipliner of the foolish, a teacher of infants, having the representation of knowledge and truth in the law. You- then who teach others, don’t you- teach yourself? You- who proclaim, “Don’t steal.” Do you- steal? You- who say, “Don’t commit adultery.” Do you- commit adultery? You- who detest idols. Do you- take holy things for yourself? You- who boast in the law. Do you- dishonour God through transgression of the law? For, as it’s been written, “The name of God is being spoken evil of among the nations because of you=.”

    For indeed, circumcision is beneficial if you- practise the law. But if you’re- a transgressor of the law, then your- circumcision has become uncircumcision. And so, if the uncircumcised keeps the regulations of the law, won’t his uncircumcision be counted as circumcision? And the physically uncircumcised who fulfils the law, will judge you-, who, through the writing and circumcision, are a transgressor of the law.

    For a person isn’t a Jew who’s one outwardly, neither is circumcision that which is outward in the flesh. But the one who’s one inwardly is a Jew, and circumcision is of the heart, in spirit, not by something written. The praise of whom doesn’t come from people, but from God.

3   Then what’s the advantage of being a Jew? Or what’s the benefit of circumcision? Many, in every way. First of all, that they were entrusted with the announcements of God. But what if some disbelieve — will their unbelief nullify the faith of God? May it never be! But God is true and every person is a liar, as it’s been written, “So that you’re- always declared righteous by your- messages, and always conquer when you’re- being judged.”

    But if our unrighteous demonstrates the righteousness of God, then what will we declare? God isn’t unrighteous when he brings his wrath on us, is he? I’m speaking in human terms. May it never be! In that case how will God judge the world? For if the truth of God overabounds in his glory due to my falsehood, then why am I still being judged as sinful? And, (as we’re being spoken of, and as they declare that we say), shouldn’t we do evil so that good will come about? Their condemnation is fair.

    What then? Are we better than them? Definitely not — we’ve already made the charge that both Jews and Greeks are all under sin. Just as it’s written, “There’s nobody who’s righteous — not even one; there isn’t one who’s understanding; there isn’t one who seeks out God; they’ve all turned away, and they’ve together become worthless; there isn’t one who shows kindness, not even one. Their throat is an open grave; their tongues are treacherous; the poison of asps is behind their lips; the mouth of whom is full of cursing and bitterness; their feet are swift to shed blood; brokenness and misery are among their ways; and they haven’t perceived the way of peace. There’s no fear of God before their eyes.”

    Now we know that whatever the law says, it speaks to those who are under the law. So that every mouth might be silenced and the entire world will become subject to the judgement of God. Therefore, no flesh will be declared righteous in his sight by works of the law. For through the law is a recognition of sin.

    But now, the righteousness of God, apart from the law, has been manifested, being testified to by the law and the prophets — the righteousness of God through faith in Yeshua the Anointed into all and on all those who trust. For there’s no distinction because all have sinned and lack the glory of God, but are being freely declared righteous by his grace through the redemption which is in Anointed Yeshua, whom God set forth, a propitiation through faith in his blood, in order to display his righteousness — because of the overlooking of the sins committed before now, in the tolerance of God, to display his righteousness in the present time, to show him as righteous, and as the one who declares righteous by the faith of Yeshua.

    Where’s boasting then? It’s excluded. Because of what law? Of works? No, but through the law of faith. We’re accounting that a person is declared righteous by faith, apart from works of the law. Or is God only the god of the Jews, and not also of the nations? Yes, also of the nations. Since there’s only one God. And he’ll declare the circumcised righteous by faith, and the uncircumcised through that same faith. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! We upholda the law.

a) uphold here is literally “to make stand”

4   What will we say then that Abraham, our father according to the flesh, has found about this? For if Abraham was declared righteous by works, then he has a boast — but not to God. For what does the writing say? “And Abraham trusted God and it was accounted to him as righteousness.” Yet, to a worker the reward isn’t accounted according to grace, but according to debt. But to the one who doesn’t work, but who trusts in the one who declares the ungodly righteous, his faith is accounted as righteousness. Just as David also speaks of the blessedness of the person to whom God accounts righteousness apart from works. “Those whose lawlessness has been pardoned are blessed, and those whose sins have been covered over.” “The man to whom the lorda [Yahweh] won’t account any sin at all is blessed.”

    This blessedness then, is it for the circumcised, or also for the uncircumcised? Now, we’re saying that to Abraham, faith was accounted as righteousness. So, how was it accounted? While he was circumcised or while he was uncircumcised? Not while he was circumcised, but while he was uncircumcised. And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of faith he had while he was uncircumcised — in order for him to be the father of all those who trust through uncircumcision, (in order that righteousness would also be accounted to them), and the father of the circumcised, not only to those of the circumcision, but also to those following the footsteps of the faith of our father Abraham while he was uncircumcised.

    For the promise to Abraham, or to his seed, (him being heir of the world), wasn’t through law, but through the righteousness of faith. For if those of the law are heirs, then faith has been made empty, and the promise has been nullified. For the law produces wrath, and where there’s no law, there isn’t any transgression either. Because of this, the promise has to come by faith, so that according to grace, the promise is certain to all of the seed — not only those of the law, but also those of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of all of us.

    As it’s been written, “I’ve placed you- as the father of many nations.” (Before God, in whom he trusted, the one who makes the dead alive, and who calls the things which aren’t, as though they are). Who, beyond hope upon hope, trusted, and so became the father of many nations, just as it had been declared, “this is how your- seed will be.” And not being weak in faith, he didn’t consider his already dead body, (he was about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sara’s womb. And he didn’t doubt the promise of God through unbelief, but he was empowered by his faith, giving glory to God. And he was fully convinced that God is able to do as he’s promised, that’s why it was accounted to him as righteousness.

    Now, it wasn’t written only because of him, that it was accounted to him, but also because of us to whom it’s about to be accounted, to those who trust on the one who raised Yeshua our lord from the dead. Who was handed over because of our transgressions and was raised for our justification.

a) Jews used “Lord” in place of “Yahweh” to avoid any possibility of breaking the third commandment.

5   So, since we’ve been declared righteous by faith, we have peace with God through our lord Yeshua the Anointed, through whom we also have access by faith into this grace in which we stand. And we’re boasting in the expectation of the glory of God. And not only that, but we’re also boasting in the duress, knowing that duress produces perseverance, and perseverance, verification, and verification, expectation.

    And the expectation isn’t put to shame, because the love of God has been poured out into our hearts through the holy spirit who has been given to us. For while we were still weak, at just the right time, the Anointed died on behalf of the ungodly.

    Hardly ever will anyone die on behalf of a righteous person, although perhaps for a good person someone might dare to die. But God demonstrates his own love for us in this — while we were still sinners, the Anointed died on our behalf.

    How much more then, having now been declared righteous by his blood, will we be saved from wrath through him. For if we, being enemies, were reconciled to God through the death of his son, how much more then, having been reconciled, will we be saved through his life. And not only this, but we’re also boasting in God through our lord Yeshua the Anointed, through whom we’ve now received reconciliation.

    Therefore, just as sin entered into the world through one person, and death through the sin, and in this way death spread to all people because all have sinned. For until there was law, sin was in the world, but sin isn’t accounted when there’s no law. Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moshe, even on those who hadn’t sinned by transgression as Adam did, (who’s a model of the one about to come).

    But in this way the endowmenta isn’t like the transgression — for if by the one transgression many died, how much more then did the grace of God, and the gift that came by the grace of the one person, Yeshua the Anointed, overabound to the many. Neither did the free gift come through one person sinning. For indeed the judgement, because of one sin, became condemnation, but the endowmenta, because of many transgressions, becomes justification. For if, by the transgression of the one, death reigns through the one, how much more will those who are receiving the overabundance of grace and the gift of righteousness, reign in life through the one — Yeshua the Anointed.

    Consequently then, just as condemnation came to all people through one transgression, in the same way also, justification of life came to all people through one act of righteousness. For just as many were appointed as sinners through the disobedience of one person, in the same way also many will be appointed as righteous through the obedience of the one.

    The law came alongside so that transgression would abound. But where sin abounded, grace overabounded. So that just as sin reigns in death, in the same way also grace would reign through righteousness, into everlasting life, through Yeshua the Anointed, our lord.

a) the Greek word has the idea of an undeserved/unmerited gift or favour

6   So what will we say? That we’ll continue to sin so that grace will abound? May it never be! How will we who have died to sin, still live in it? Or are you= unaware that all of us who’ve been immersed into Anointed Yeshua, have been immersed into his death. We’ve therefore been buried with him, (through the immersion), into death, so that, just as the Anointed has been raised from the dead by the glory of the father, in the same way we should also walk in newness of life. For if we’ve become planted together in the likeness of his death, so we’ll also be of his resurrection.

    Perceiving this — that our old self was executeda with him in order that the body of sin might be nullified — we should no longer be slaves of sin. For whoever has died has been declared righteous from sin. Now, if we died with the Anointed then we trust that we’ll also live with him. Knowing that since the Anointed has been raised from the dead he can no longer die — death no longer has lordship over him. For when he died, he died to sin once and for all, and when he lives, he lives to God. In the same way, you= too, count yourselves as dead indeed to sin, but alive to God in Anointed Yeshua our lord.

    So don’t let sin reign in your= mortal body, so that you= obey its desires. And don’t present the parts of your= body to sin as implements of unrighteousness either. But present yourselves to God as those who are alive from the dead, and present the parts of your= body to God as implements of righteousness. For sin won’t have lordship over you=, because you= aren’t under law, but under grace.

    What then? Will we sin because we aren’t under law but under grace? May it never be! Don’t you= know that you’re= slaves to obey the one to whom you= present yourselves in obedience — whether to sin, resulting in death, or to obedience, resulting in righteousness. But thank God, that you= were slaves of sin, but you’ve= obeyed from your= heart the model of teaching which you= were given over to. And now, having been set free from sin, you’ve= become slaves to righteousness.

    I say this in human terms because of the weakness of your= flesh. For even as you= presented the parts of your= body as slaves to uncleanness and spiralling lawlessness, in the same way now, present the parts of your= body as slaves to righteousness, resulting in sanctification.

    For when you= were slaves to sin you= were free from righteousness. But what fruit did you= have then from doing what you’re= now ashamed of — for the end result of those things is death. But now you’ve= been set free from sin, and have become enslaved to God. And you= have the fruit which results in sanctification, and the end result is everlasting life. For the rewards of service to sin is death, but the endowmentb of God is everlasting life in Anointed Yeshua our lord.

a) the Greek word specifically means to execute by hanging on a stake

b) the Greek word has the idea of an undeserved/unmerited gift or favour

7   Or are you= unaware brothers, (for I’m speaking to those who perceive the law), that the law has lordship over a person only while they’re living. For a married woman is bound by law to her husband while he’s living, but if he dies, she’s been released from the law of her husband. Consequently then, while the man’s still living, if she becomes another man’s, then she’ll be called an adulteress. But if the man dies, then she’s free from the law, so she isn’t an adulteress, even though she becomes another man’s.

    So my brothers. You= also were made dead to the law through the body of the Anointed, so you= could become another’s — he who was raised from the dead in order that we should bear fruit to God. For when we were in the flesh, the conditions of sin acted through the law in the parts of our bodies, resulting in the bearing of fruit to death. But now, having died to what once bound and controlled us, we’ve been released from the law, so that we’re slaves, in the newness of the spirit, and not in the oldness of the writing.

    Then what will we declare — the law is sin? May it never be! In fact, I didn’t perceive sin except through the law. I wouldn’t have been aware of desire if the law hadn’t said, “You- won’t desire.” But sin took the opportunity through the command and produced in me all kinds of desire. For apart from the law, sin is dead.

    I used to be alive apart from the law, but once the command came, sin returned to life and I died. And so, the command which was for life, was found by me to result in death. For sin took the opportunity through the command and deceived me, and through the command, it killed me. So then, the law is indeed holy, and the command is also holy, and just, and good.

    Has that which was good become death to me? May it never be! But sin, so that it might be revealed as sin, through that which is good, is producing death to me, that it might become inordinately sinful through the command. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I’m fleshly, having been sold into slavery to sin.

    For I don’t perceive what I’m producing. Because I don’t practise what I want, but I do what I hate. And if I keep doing what I don’t want to do, then I give agreement that the law is gooda. But now, it’s no longer me who’s producing it, but it’s sin which makes its home in me.

    For I know that no goodb thing makes its home in me, that is, in my flesh. Because wanting to is lying beside me, but I don’t find the producing of gooda. For the good that I want — I don’t do. But the evil which I don’t want — that I practise. Now if that which I don’t want to do is what I do, then it’s no longer me who’s producing it, but sin which makes its home in me.

    Consequently, I find this law — when I want to do gooda, evil is lying right beside me. For in my inner self I’m rejoicing to God because of his law, but I observe a different law in the parts of my body, fighting a war against the law of my mind, and leading me into captivity to the law of sin which is in the parts of my body.

    What a miserable person I am. Who’ll rescue me from this body of death? I give thanks to God for rescuing me through Yeshua the Anointed, our lord. So then, I myself, in my mind am indeed a slave to the law of God, but in my flesh — to the law of sin.

a) good in terms of quality, not morality

b) morally good

8   So then, there’s now not even one condemnation for those who are in Anointed Yeshua — those who walk not according to flesh, but according to spirit. For the law of the spirit of life in Anointed Yeshua sets me free from the law of sin and of death. For what was impossible for the law, because it was made weak by the flesh, God did by sending his own son in the likeness of the flesh of sin. And concerning sin — he condemned sin in the flesh, so that the justification of the law would be fulfilled among us — those who walk not according to flesh, but according to spirit.

    For those who live according to flesh, the disposition of their thinking is on things of the flesh. But for those who live according to spirit, on things of the spirit. For the disposition of the flesh is death, but the disposition of the spirit is life and peace. Because the disposition of the flesh is hostility towards God, for it’s not in subjection to the law of God, nor is it even able to be so.

    And those who live in the flesh aren’t able to please God. You= however aren’t in flesh, but in spirit — if in fact the spirit of God makes its home among you=. (But if anyone doesn’t have the spirit of the Anointed, then they aren’t his). And if the Anointed is among you=, the body is indeed dead because of sin, but the spirit has life because of righteousness. So if the spirit of the one who raised Yeshua from the dead is making its home among you=, then the one who raised the Anointed from the dead will also give life to your= mortal bodies, through the living among you= of his spirit.

    So then brothers, we’re debtors, but not to the flesh, to live according to it. Because if you= live according to the flesh, then you’re= going to die. But if you= put to death the actions of the body, by the spirit, then you’ll= live. For whoever is led by the spirit of God, these are sons of God. For you= didn’t receive again a spirit of slavery to fear, but you= received a spirit of sonship, by which we cry “Abbaa — father”

    This same spirit testifies with our spirit that we’re children of God. And if we’re children then we’re also heirs, heirs indeed of God, and joint heirs with the Anointed, (if in fact we suffer together so that we’ll be glorified together).

    For I account that the sufferings of the current time aren’t deserving of the glory which is about to be revealed among us. For the earnest expectation of the creation is anticipating the revelation of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to purposelessness — not voluntarily, but through the one who made it subject, in expectation. So that the creation itself will also be set free from the slavery of decay, into the freedom of the glory of the children of God.

    For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in labour until now. Not only that, but also we ourselves, who have the firstfruit of the spirit, we ourselves also groan among ourselves as we’re anticipating sonship — the redemption of our body. For we were saved in expectation, and expectation that’s already seen isn’t expectation, for who expects something which they can already see? But if we expect that which we don’t see, then we’re anticipating it through perseverance.

    In a similar way, the spirit helps us in our weakness. For we aren’t aware of what we should pray, but the spirit itself pleads for us on our behalf, with groanings which can’t be spoken. But the one who searches hearts is aware of the disposition of the spirit — who according to God, pleads on behalf of the holy.

    And we know that for those who love God, all things work together to result in good, for those who are called according to his purpose. For those whom he knew in advance, he also determined in advance to be conformed to the image of his son — so that he’d be the firstborn of many brothers. But those whom he determines in advance, these he also calls. And those whom he calls, these he also declares righteous. And those whom he declares righteous, these he also glorifies.

    So what will we declare about these things? If God is for us, who’s against usb? Surely, the one who didn’t spare his own son, but who gave him over for the sake of all of us — how will he not also, together with him, show us grace in all things.

    Who’ll bring a charge against the selected of God? God who declares us righteous? Who’ll condemn us? The anointed who died, and even more was raised from the dead, who’s also at the right hand of God, who pleads on our behalf? Who’ll separate us from the love of the Anointed? Duress? Distress? Persecution? Famine? Nakedness? Danger? Sword? As it’s been written, “We’re put to death all day long for your- sake. We’re counted as sheep for slaughter.”

    But in all these things we more than conquer through the one who loves us. For I’m convinced that neither death, nor life, nor messengers, nor authorities, nor powers, neither things present nor things to come, neither height nor depth, nor any other thing in creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God which is in Anointed Yeshua, our lord.

a) “abba” is Hebrew for father

b) literally “if God is over us who is down on us”

9   I speak the truth in the Anointed, (I’m not lying, my conscience testifies with me in the holy spirit), that I have great sadness and incessant pain in my heart. For I’ve prayed that I myself were accursed, away from the Anointed, for the sake of my brothers, my relatives according to the flesh, who are Yisraelites — of whom are the sonship, the glory, the covenants, the lawgiving, the service, and the promises. Of whom are the fathers, and from whom, according to the flesh, is the Anointed. Goda, who’s above all, is blessed into the ages.


    But it’s not that the message of God has fallen short, for not all of those who are descended from Yisrael are Yisrael. Nor just because they’re the seed of Abraham are they all his children, but “through Yitshak the seed will be called to you-.” That is, it isn’t the children of the flesh who are children of God, but it’s the children of the promise who are accounted as seed. For the message of the promise was this, “At that time I’ll come, and Sara will have a son.”

    And not only this, but Rebecca also had twinsc with Yitshak our father, but before they were born, before they’d committed anything either good or evil, so that the purpose of God might stand according to election, not because of works, but because of the one who calls us, it was declared to her, “The one who’s greater will be a slave to the one who’s less.” Just as it’s been written, “I loved Yaakov, but I hated Esau.”

    So what will we say? There’s no unrighteousness with God, is there? May it never be. For he said to Moshe, “I’ll have mercy on whomever I’ll have mercy, and I’ll have compassion on whomever I’ll have compassion.” So then, it isn’t about the one who wants it, nor about the one who runs, but it’s about God being merciful. For the writings say to Pharaoh, “For this very reason, this is why I raised you- up — so that I could display my power in you-, and so that my name would be passed ond through all the earth.”

    So then, he has mercy on whomever he wants, and he hardens whomever he wants. So you’ll- say to me, “Why does God still blame us, for who has resisted his intention?” But surely, honourable person, who are you- to answer back to God? Will what’s moulded say to the one who moulded it, “Why’d you- make me this way?” Or doesn’t the potter have authority over the clay, to make, out of the same dough, one vessel of high value indeed and one which is worthless? But what if God, wanting to display his wrath and to make his power known, bears with great patience the vessels of wrath which have been prepared for destruction, and so that he’d make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy — which he prepared beforehand for glory, even us, those whom he also calls, not only from the Jews but also from the nations.

    As it also says in Hosea, “I’ll call those who aren’t my people — my people; and the one who isn’t loved — loved.” And “It’ll happen, that in the place where it was declared to them, ‘You= aren’t my people’, there they’ll be called sons of the living god.” Yisheyah also cries out on behalf of Yisrael, “Even if the number of the sons of Yisrael is as the sand of the sea, the remnant will be saved.” For the lorde [Yahweh] will conclude the story — in righteousness, the story will come to an abrupt end on the earth. And just as Yisheyah has declared before, “If the lorde [Yahweh] Sabaothf hadn’t left behind a seed for us, we would’ve become like Sodom and been made like Gomorrah.”

    So what will we say? That the nations who didn’t pursue righteousness actually overtook it, even a righteousness that’s by faith. But Yisrael, who pursued the law of righteousness, didn’t overtake it. Why? Because they didn’t pursue it by faith but by works of law. For they’ve tripped up on the obstacle. As it’s been written, “Look! I place in Zion a stumbling stone and a rock snare, and all those who trust in him won’t be put to shame.”

a) This verse can be translated a number of different ways depending on where punctuation is placed. It could read, “... the Anointed, god above all, is blessed...”

b) amen is a Hebrew word meaning “truly”

c) literally “on the basis of one bed”

d) pass on in the sense of spreading a message from one person to another, to another... sort of like gossipping but without the negative connotation

e) Jews used “Lord” in place of “Yahweh” to avoid any possibility of breaking the third commandment.

f) “sabaoth” is a Hebrew word which means “hosts” or “armies”

10   Brothers, the delight of my heart and petition to God on behalf of Yisrael is indeed for salvation. For I testify that they have a zeal for God. But it isn’t according to knowledge, for, being ignorant of the righteousness of God, they sought to erecta their own righteousness, and weren’t subject to God’s righteousness. For the Anointed is the fulfilment of the law, in order for there to be righteousness for all who trust.

    For Moshe writes about the righteousness which is by the law, “The person who does these things will live throughb them.” But the righteousness that’s by faith says this: “Don’t say in your- heart, ‘Who’ll ascend into heaven?’” (that is, to bring the Anointed down), “or, ‘Who’ll descend into the abyss?’” (that is, to bring the Anointed back up from the dead). But what does it say? “The declaration is near you-, in your- mouth, and in your- heart”, that is, the declaration of faith which we’re proclaiming — that if you- acknowledge the lord Yeshua with your- mouth, and trust in your- heart that God raised him from the dead, then you’ll- be saved.

    For it’s with the heart that you- trust, resulting in righteousness, and with your- mouth that you- acknowledge, resulting in salvation. For the writing says, “Everyone who trusts in him won’t be put to shame.” For there’s no distinction between Jews and Greeks, for the same lord of all is rich towards all those who are calling on him. For everyone — whoever calls on the name of the lordc [Yahweh], will be saved.

    How then will they call on him in whom they haven’t trusted? And how will they trust in him of whom they haven’t heard? And how will they hear unless someone proclaims? And how will they proclaim if they haven’t been sent out? Just as it’s been written, “How beautiful are the feet of those who bring good news of peace, of those who bring good news of good things.”

    But not all obeyed the good news. For Yisheyah says, “Lordc [Yahweh]! Who has trusted what they heard from us?” So then, faith is based on what’s heard, and what’s heard is based on the declaration of God. But I ask, didn’t they hear? Definitely they did — their voice went out all over the earth, and their declarations to the ends of the inhabited world. And I say, did Yisrael really not perceive? First Moshe says, “I’ll make you= jealous by those who aren’t a nation, I’ll provoke you= to anger by a nation void of understanding.” And Yisheyah is very bold when he says, “I was found by those who weren’t seeking me. I became manifest to those who weren’t asking for me.” But towards Yisrael he says, “The whole day I spread out my hands towards a stubborn and contrary people.”

a) erect here is literally “to stand”

b) “through them” in the sense of “by doing them, they will live”

c) Jews used “Lord” in place of “Yahweh” to avoid any possibility of breaking the third commandment.

11   I say then, “God hasn’t rejected his own people, has he?” May it never be! For I’m also a Yisraelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God hasn’t rejected his people, whom he knew in advance. Or don’t you= know what the writing says of Eliyah? How he pleads with God about Yisrael, saying, “Lorda [Yahweh]! They’ve killed your- prophets and they’ve torn down your- altars. And only I was left remaining, and they’re seeking my life.” But what’s the divine response saying to him? “I’ve reserved for myself seven thousand men, who don’t bow their knee to Baal.” In the same way then, also in the present time, there’s a remnant according to the election of grace. And if it’s grace, then it’s no longer by works, otherwise grace is no longer grace. And if it’s by works, then it’s no longer grace, otherwise works is no longer works.

    What then? Yisrael failed to attain what they were seeking after — but those who were elected attained it, and the remainder were hardened. As it’s been written, “God has given them a spirit of stupor, eyes that don’t see, ears that don’t hear — even to this very day.” Also David says, “Let their table become a snare, and a net, and a trap, and a payback to them. Let their eyes be darkened — no longer seeing, and their back permanently bent over.”

    I say then, “They didn’t trip so that they should fall down, did they?” May it never be! But because of their transgression, salvation has come to the nations, in order to provoke them to jealousy. But if their transgression is riches for the world, and their confusion is riches for the nations, how much more then will their fulfilment be? For I say to you= — to the nations — in as much as I am indeed an ambassador of the nations, I glorify my service, if somehow I can provoke my own flesh to jealously, and save some of them. For if their being discarded is reconciliation for the world, what will their being taken back be — if not life from the dead? And if the firstfruit is holy, then so is the whole batch. And if the root is holy, then so are the branches.

    Now if some of the branches are broken off, and you-, a wild olive, are grafted into them, and become joint sharers with them of the root and of the nourishmentb of the olive tree, don’t boast over the branches. And if you- do boast, be aware that you- don’t bear the root, the root bears you-. You’ll- say then, “Branches were broken off so that I could be grafted in.” Quite right. They were broken off through unbelief, and you- stand by faith. Don’t be conceited but be fearful. For if God didn’t spare the natural branches, possibly he may not spare you- either.

    Look then. The kindness and severity of God — severity indeed on those who fell, but kindness on you- — if in fact, you- continue in his kindness, otherwise you’ll- also be cut off. And those too, if they don’t continue in their unbelief, they’ll be grafted back in — for God is able to graft them in again. For if you-, contrary to nature, were cut out of a wild olive and were grafted into a cultivated olive tree — how much more then will these, in keeping with their nature, be grafted back into their own olive tree.

    For I don’t want you= to be ignorant about this secret brothers, so that you= may get above yourselves — a hardening of a part of Yisrael has come until the fullness of the nations has entered in. And in this way, all Yisrael will be saved just as it’s been written, “The rescuer will arrive out of Zionc, and he’ll turn away ungodliness from Yaakov. And this is my covenant with them, whenever I take away their sins.”

    Just as indeed according to the good news, they’re enemies on account of you=, but according to election, they’re beloved because of their fathers — for the endowmentsd and the calling of God are irrevocablee. For just as you= also used to be disobedient to God, but now you’ve= been shown mercy as a result of their disobedience, in the same way also, those who are now disobedient — so that through the mercy to you= they may also be shown mercy. For God has imprisoned all into disobedience in order that he may show mercy to all.

    Oh the depth of the riches, and of the wisdom, and of the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgements, and how untraceable are his ways. For who has perceived the mind of the lorda [Yahweh], and who has become his counsellor? Who gives first to God so that it’ll be repaid to them? Because all things are from him, and through him, and into him. To him is the glory into the ages.


a) Jews used “Lord” in place of “Yahweh” to avoid any possibility of breaking the third commandment.

b) “nourishment” is literally “fatness”

c) Zion is a Hebrew word for the area of Jerusalem

d) the Greek word has the idea of an undeserved/unmerited gift or favour

e) “irrevocable” here in the sense of never regretting having given them

f) amen is a Hebrew word meaning “truly”

12   I entreat you= then brothers, because of the compassions of God, to present your= bodies to God as a living, holy, pleasing sacrifice — your= logical service. And don’t be conformed to this age, but be transformed by the renewing of your= mind, so that you= discern what the will of God is — good and pleasing and perfect.

    For I say through the grace which has been given to me, to all among you=, don’t think too highly of yourselves, but be of a sound mind, and consider yourselves in accordance with the measure of faith which God has distributed to each one of you=. For even as in one body we have many parts, but the body parts don’t all have the same function. In the same way, although we are many, in the Anointed we’re one — and so each one of us are body parts of one another.

    And having differing endowmentsa according to the grace which has been given to us: whether it’s prophecy — use it according to the proportion of faith; whether it’s a service — use it in service; whether it’s teaching — use it in teaching; whether it’s entreating — use it in encouragement; giving — use it in onenessb; leading others — use it diligently; being merciful — use it cheerfully.

    Have genuine love, detesting wickedness, being bound together with goodness. Have brotherly love for one another, value one another highly, considering others first [more important]. With diligence and not timidc, be fervent by the spirit, be a slave to the lord.

    Rejoice in expectation, endure duress, be devoted to prayer. Share the needs of the holy in common, pursue hospitality. Bless those who persecute you=, bless and don’t curse. Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep. Consider one another the same, don’t consider yourself to be high, but be grouped together with the humble, not getting above yourselves in your= own minds.

    Don’t repay evil for evil to anyone. Instead, take measures to do goodd in the sight of all people. If it’s possible, in as much as it depends on you=, be at peace with all people. Don’t take revenge yourselves beloved, but give room for wrath — as it’s been written, “For vengeance is by me. I’ll repay, says the lorde [Yahweh].” If your- enemy is ever hungry, give them some food. If they’re ever thirsty, give them some drink. For in doing this, you’ll- heap burning coals onto their head. Don’t be conquered by evil, but conquer evil with good.

a) the Greek word has the idea of an undeserved/unmerited gift or favour

b) singleness as opposed to doubleness, “we”, not “us and them”

c) the Greek word here for “timid” means “lacking in confidence”

d) good in terms of quality, not morality

e) Jews used “Lord” in place of “Yahweh” to avoid any possibility of breaking the third commandment.

13   Let every life be subject to higher authorities, for there’s no authority except under God, and the authorities that do exist have been set up by God. So that anyone who resists the authority has resisted an ordinance of God, and so those who have resisted will receive condemnation upon themselves.

    For the rulers aren’t a fear for those of good works, but for those of evil. Do you- want to be unafraid of the authority? Then do what’s good, and you’ll- have praise from them, because he’s a servant of God to you-, for good. But if you- do evil, be afraid! For he doesn’t wear the sword without reason — he’s a servant of God, an avenger, in order to bring wrath on those who practise evil. That’s why it’s necessary to be subject to him, not only because of the wrath, but also because of the conscience.

    This is also why you= pay taxes to them — for they’re ministers of God, devoted to this very thing. So repay what’s owed to all. To those who are owed a tribute, tribute. To those who are owed a tax, tax. To those who are owed fear, fear. To those who are owed honour, honour. Don’t owe anything to anyone, except to love one another.

    For the one who loves the other has fulfilled the law. For “Don’t commit adultery”, “Don’t murder”, “Don’t steal”, “Don’t testify falsely”, “Don’t desire”, and if there’s any other command — these are all summed up in this saying, “Love your- neighbour as you- do yourself.”

    Love to a neighbour does no evil. So love is the fulfilment of the law. And do this being aware of the time, that the hour has already come for us to be woken up from sleep, for our salvation is nearer now than when we trusted. The night is passing and the day has come near. So we should be putting off the acts of darkness, and we should be putting on the armour of the light. As in the day, we should walk respectably, not in wild parties and drunkenness, not in promiscuity and sexual immorality, not in strife and jealousy. But put on the lord Yeshua the Anointed, and don’t make any provision for the flesh — for its desires.

14   And accept those who are weak in faith, so that you= don’t have separation over arguments. For one person indeed believes that they may eat all things, but the weak one eats only vegetables. Don’t let the one who eats look down on the one who doesn’t eat! And don’t let the one who doesn’t eat judge the one who eats! Because God has accepted them. You- — who are you- to judge someone else’s household slave? He stands or falls to his own master. And he’ll stand, because God is able to make him stand.

    One person indeed judges that one day is more important than another day, and one person judges all days equal. Let each one be fully convinced in his own mind! The one who favours a special day, favours it to the lord. And the one who doesn’t favour any particular day, does so to the lord. And the one who eats, eats to the lord, for they give thanks to God. And the one who doesn’t eat, does so to the lord, and they give thanks to God.

    For none of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself. For both if we live, then we live to the lord, and if we die, we die to the lord. So then, if we may live, or if we may die, we’re of the lord. For this reason the Anointed died, and rose up again, and lives — so that he’d be lord of both the dead and of the living.

    But you-, why do you- judge your- brother, and why do you- look down upon your- brother? For we’ll all be presented at the judgement platform of the Anointed. For it’s been written, “’Because I live,’ says the lorda [Yahweh], ‘every knee will bow and every tongue will confess in full to God.’”

    So then each one of us will give an account of themselves to God. So we should no longer judge one another. But decide this instead, not to put a stumbling block or a snare in your= brother’s way.

    I’ve become aware, and I’ve been persuaded in the lord Yeshua, that nothing’s commonb of itself. But to the one who accounts it as common, it’s common to him. If your- brother is distressed because of your- food, then you’re- no longer walking according to love. Don’t, by your- food, destroy the one for whose sake the Anointed died. Don’t let your= good be spoken of as evil. For the kingdom of God isn’t eating and drinking, but righteousness and peace and joy in the holy spirit.

    For the one who’s a slave to the Anointed in these things, is pleasing to God and approved by people. So then, we should pursue the things of peace, and the things which build one another up. Don’t demolish the work of God on account of food. All things are indeed clean, but they’re evil to the person who eats because of a stumbling block. It’s better not to eat meat, nor to drink wine, nor to do anything in which your- brother trips up, or in which he’s stumbled or is weak.

    You- have faith — have it to yourself in the sight of God. The one who doesn’t judge against himself by what he discerns is blessed. But the one who doubts, but who eats anyway — is condemned because it isn’t from faith. And everything which isn’t from faith is sin.

a) Jews used “Lord” in place of “Yahweh” to avoid any possibility of breaking the third commandment.

b) everything is either holy (for God’s use) or common (not holy)

15   And we who are able should bear the infirmities of those who are unable, and we shouldn’t just please ourselves. Let each one of us please their neighbour in order for good, for building up. For even the Anointed didn’t please himself, but just as it’s been written, “The reproaches of those who reproach you-, fell on me.” For whatever was written before, was written specifically for our teaching. So that through perseverance and through the encouragement of the writings, we might have expectation. And may the god of perseverance, and of encouragement, grant to you= to be disposed the same way towards one another, just as Anointed Yeshua was. So that with one accord, with one mouth, you= may glorify the god and father of our lord Yeshua the Anointed. Therefore accept one another, just as the Anointed also accepted you=, in order for the glory of God.

    Now, I say that Anointed Yeshua has become a servant of circumcision, for the sake of the truth of God, in order to confirm the promises of the fathers. And so that the nations, for the sake of mercy, may glorify God, just as it’s been written, “Because of this, I’ll profess you- among the nations and I’ll play music to your- name.” And again it says, “Celebrate along with his people, you= nations!” And again, “Praise the lorda [Yahweh] all you= nations, and applaud him all you= peoples!” And again Yisheyah says, “There’ll be the root of Yishay, the one who rises up to be the leader of nations — the nations will put their expectation on him.”

    Yet may the god of expectation fill you= with all joy and peace in trusting, so that you’ll= overabound in expectation in the power of the holy spirit. And I’ve been persuaded my brothers, concerning you=, and myself also, that we ourselves are crammed full of goodness, having been filled with all knowledge, and we’re also able to admonish others.

    And so I write more daringly to you= brothers, in part as if reminding you=, because of the grace which has been given to me by God, that I’m a minister of Yeshua the Anointed to the nations, to perform the ministry of the good news of God, in order to bring about that the offering of the nations may become acceptable, having been made holy in the holy spirit. I have then a boast in Anointed Yeshua, in the things relating to God. For I won’t dare to speak about anything, except the labours of the Anointed through me, to bring about the obedience of the nations, in both words and actions, in the power of signs and of miracles, in the power of the spirit of God, so that from Jerusalem all the way around to Illyricum, I have completely spread the good news of the Anointed. And in this way, striving to bring the good news where the Anointed has not been named, so that I wouldn’t be building on someone else’s foundation. But just as it’s been written, “Those who weren’t informed about him — they’ll see. And those who haven’t heard — they’ll understand.”

    That’s why I was hindered many times from coming to you=. But now there’s no longer any place for me in these regions. And I’ve had a longing to come to you= for many years, so whenever I go to Spain I’ll be coming to you= — for I expect to pass through there to see you=, and to be sent on from there by you=, after I’ve first been satisfied by a little of your= company.

    And now I’m going to Jerusalem to serve those who are holy. For it delighted Macedonia and Achaia to make some contribution for the poor of the holy in Jerusalem. For it delighted them, and they’re in fact debtors to them — for if the nations share their spiritual things in common, then they should also minister to them in their fleshly [material] things. So, once I’ve performed this, and confirmedb this fruit to them, I’ll be coming to you= on the way to Spain. And I know that I’ll be coming to you= in the fullness of the blessings of the good news of the Anointed.

    And I entreat you= brothers, because of our lord Yeshua the Anointed, and because of the love of the spirit, to contend together with me in prayer to God on my behalf. So that I might be rescued from those who are disobedient in Judea, and so that my service to Jerusalem may be acceptable to those who are holy. So that I may be coming to you= in joy, through the will of God, and that I may be rested together with you=.

    And the god of peace is with all of you=.


a) Jews used “Lord” in place of “Yahweh” to avoid any possibility of breaking the third commandment.

b) “confirmed” here is literally “sealed” (as in marked with a seal)

c) amen is a Hebrew word meaning “truly”

16   And I commend our sister Phoebe to you=, a servant of the assembly in Cenchrea. So you= should accept her in the lord in a way worthy of those who are holy, and may you= stand by her in whatever matter she has need of you=. For she herself is someone who stands in front of many, even me.

    Greet Priska and Akulas, my fellow workers in Anointed Yeshua, who risked their own necks for the sake of my life. To whom not only I give thanks, but so also do all the assemblies of the nations. And greet the assembly that’s in their house.

    Greet my beloved Epanetus who’s the firstfruit to the Anointed from Achaia. Greet Maria who laboured much on our behalf. Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives and my fellow captives, who are notable among the ambassadors, and who also were in the Anointed before me.

    Greet my beloved Amplias in the lord. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in the Anointed, and my beloved Stachys. Greet Apelles, approved in the Anointed. Greet those of Aristobulus. Greet Herodion, my relative. Greet those of Narcissus who are in the lord. Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the lord. Greet the beloved Persis who labours much in the lord. Greet Rufus, the selected one in the lord, and his mother and mine. Greet Asyncritus, Phelgon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes and the brothers who are with them. Greet Philologos, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas and all those who are holy who are with them.

    Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the assemblies of the Anointed greet you=. And I entreat you= brothers, to take note of those who cause divisions and snares, contrary to the teaching which you’ve= learned, and keep away from them! For such people aren’t being slaves to our lord Yeshua the Anointed, but to their own bellies. And because of their smooth talk and blessings, they deceive the hearts of the innocent.

    I rejoice over you= because your= obedience has reached out to all. And I want you= to be wise indeed regarding good, but pure and untainted regarding evil. And the god of peace will very soon crush Satana under your= feet. The grace of our lord Yeshua the Anointed is among you=.

    Timotheos my fellow worker and Lucius, Iason, Sosipater, my relatives, greet you=. I, Tertius, the one who wrote this letter in the lord, greet you=. Gaius, host to me and to the whole assembly, greets you=. Erastus the steward of the city, and also Quartus my brother, greet you=. The grace of our lord Yeshua the Anointed is with all of you=.


    And to the one who’s able to establish you=, according to my good news and the proclamation of Yeshua the Anointed, according to the revelation of the secret of times everlasting, which has been hushed but which has now been manifested, both through the prophetic writings, and according to the command of the everlasting God, so that the obedience of faith will be made known to all the nations. To the only wise God — be glory into the ages, through Yeshua the Anointed.


a) Satan is the Hebrew name for Diabolos and means “accuser”

b) amen is a Hebrew word meaning “truly”